Decarbonization of Cement Industry in Pakistan

  • File ACJCE
  • File Apr 22, 2024


Cement production is integral to Pakistan’s economic growth, contributing substantially to GDP and employment. However, as a carbon-intensive industry representing 7-8% of national emissions, cement also carries a heavy environmental footprint. This report analyses Pakistan’s in-depth cement sector dynamics and lays a strategic roadmap for its decarbonization journey. The report examines critical facets shaping the industry, including plant locations, production and dispatch patterns, the predominant use of imported coal as fuel, and the link between infrastructure spending and cement demand. A significant portion of Pakistan’s energy consumed is met through coal imports. Detailed calculations reveal the scale of direct and indirect CO2 emissions from raw material calcination, fuel combustion, and electricity use. Additionally, the report extensively maps out available technologies and alternate fuels that can facilitate a transition to low-carbon cement production in Pakistan. The options explored range from boosting energy efficiency, waste heat recovery, alternate cement and raw materials, and biomass fuels to carbon capture mechanisms. A pivotal analysis involves the development of marginal abatement cost curves to identify cost-effective interventions. Utilizing agricultural residues such as rice husk, wheat straw, corn stover, and rice paddy as alternate fuels emerges as an economically viable option in Pakistan’s agricultural context. Substantive emission reductions are feasible at low cost when combined with clinker substitution and energy efficiency measures. The report proposes a multi-pronged strategic framework encompassing policy, technology, capacity building, and financing for decarbonizing the industry. While challenges like entrenched coal dependency and limited investment exist, strategic efforts spanning stakeholder coordination, international collaboration, and flexible policy incentives can enable Pakistan’s cement industry to transform green. In conclusion, this report offers an extensive analysis of Pakistan’s cement landscape and provides a detailed roadmap for allowing the industry to reduce its carbon footprint substantially. By transitioning to sustainable practices, Pakistan can drive its cement sector to be globally competitive while spearheading climate change mitigation as a responsible global partner.